Impact of Instructional Scaffolding Approach on Secondary School Students Achievement in Mathematics

Nwoke Bright Ihechukwu


The study investigated the impact of instructional scaffolding approach on secondary school students’ achievement in Mathematics. The study was carried out in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State. The study was a quasi-experimental research type adopting the pre-test post test non equivalent control design in carrying out the study. A sample of 237 senior secondary school II (SS II) students consisting of 81 males and 156 females was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a researcher made 30 items objective test questions titled “Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT)”. The instrument had reliability coefficient of 0.85 determined using Kuder Richardson 20 formula  (KR20). The experiment group was taught mathematics using instructional scaffolding approach while the control group was taught using traditional approach. The data generated was analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed that instructional scaffolding is effective in enhancing secondary school students’ achievement in mathematics and minimized gender bias. Based on the result it was recommended that mathematics teachers at secondary school level should apply instructional scaffolding approach in teaching to enhance students’ achievement.


Instructional scaffolding; Achievement;Mathematics;

Full Text:



Aditi, B. (2017). Effect of instructional scaffolding on high school students’ academic achievement and attitude towards science. International Journal of Science Technology and Management, 6(3), 228 – 235.

Agommuoh, P. O. & Ifeanyi, A. O. (2013). Secondary school students assessment of innovative teaching strategies in enhancing achievement in physics and mathematics. IOSR Journal or Research & Method in Education (IOSR-IRME), 3(5), 06 – 11.

Alake, E. M. & Ogunseemi, O. E. (2013). Effects of scaffolding strategy on learners’ academic achievement in integrated science at the junior secondary school level. European Scientific Journal, 9(11), 149 – 155.

Andaya, O. J. F. (2014). Factors that affect mathematics achievement of Students of Philippine Normal University. Isabela Campus International Refereed Research Journal, (1)4,83 – 91.

Awofala, A. O. A. (2011). Effect of concept mapping strategy on students’ achievement in junior secondary school mathematics. International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology, 2(3), 11 – 16.

Belland, Gkazewsjum J, D, & Richardson, J. C. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of existence–based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech. Research Dev. 56, 401 – 422.

Cholewinski, M. (2009). An introduction to constructivism and authentic activity. Retrieved

from on 8/5/2017

Dahliana, D., Marhami, M., & Mursalin, M. (2019). Improving Students' Mathematical Critical Thinking Abilities Through the Problem Solving Method on the Sequences and Series Course. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(7), 813-816.


Elekwa, U. C. C. (2010). Effects of collaborative teaching/learning strategies on the mathematics achievement of senior secondary school students in Abia State of Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.

George, H. H. (2007). Assessment and grading in high school mathematic classroom. Journal of Mathematics Association Nigeria. 33(2), 412 – 418.

Hammond, J. (2001). Scaffolding: teaching and learning in language and literacy education. Rozelle PETA.

Huda, S., & Agustyaningrum, N. (2019). An Analysis of Sensory Integration Approach on Counting Skills Among Children With Special-Needs. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 2(2), 52-55.

Ihendinihu, U.E. (2013). Enhancing mathematics achievement of secondary school students using mastery learning approach. Journal of emerging Trends in educational Research and Policy Studies(JETERAPS), 4(6),848-854.

Iji, C. O. (2000). Reforming school mathematics curriculum in line with global challenges. Proceedings of the 49th Annual conference of STAN. Pp. 226 – 230.

Imoke, I. B. & Agwagah, U. N. (2006). Improving students’ interest in mathematics through the concept mapping technique. A focus on gender. Journal of Research in Curriculum and Teaching, 1(1), 30- 31.

Kurumeh, M. S., Obarakpo, J. S., Odoh, C. O. & Ikyereye, R. O. (2016).

Enhancing senior secondary school students’ achievement in geometry through the utilization of Rusbult problem solving model in Keffi Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Merit Research Journals 4(6),65-70.

Maduabum, M. A. & Odili, g. a. (2006). Analysis of students’ performance in mathematics from 1991 – 2002. Journal of Research in Curriculum and Teaching, 1(1), 64 – 68.

Math Solutions (2016). What is scaffold learning?. Retrieved from on 25th sept 2017

Mursalin, M. (2019). The Critical Thinking Abilities in Learning Using Elementary Algebra E-Books: A Case Study at Public Universities in Indonesia. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 2(1), 29-33.

Niswah, U., & Qohar, A. (2020). Mathematical Reasoning in Mathematics Learning on Pyramid Volume Concepts. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 3(1), 23-26.

Nufus, H., & Mursalin, M. (2020). Improving Students' Problem Solving Ability and Mathematical Communication through the Application of Problem Based Learning. Electronic Journal of Education, Social Economics and Technology, 1(1), 43-48. DOI: 10.33122/ejeset.v1i1.8

Nuraina, N., & Mursalin, M. (2018). Improving Students' Mathematical Communication Skills Through Learning Start Learning Models With A Question on Pythagoras. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 1(2), 44-47. DOI:

Nzewi, U. & Ibeneme, A. N. (2011) The effect of cueing questions as instructional scaffolding on students’ achievement biology. Retrieved from 2nd oct. 2017.

Ogwudola, J. P., Abiodun, A. P. & Jonathan, O. O. (2010). Effects ofconstructivist instructional approach on teaching practical skills to mechanical related trade students in Western Nigeria technical colleges. International NGO Journal. 5(3), 59 – 64.

Olunloye, O. (2010). Mass failure in mathematics: A national disaster.Tribune of 07/02/2010. Retrieved from on 20/8/2017

Raymond, E. (2000). Cognitive characteristics learners with mild disabilities. Allyn & Bacon, Needhasn Heights.

Reiser, B. J. (2004). Scaffolding complex learning: The mechanisms of structuring and problematizing student work. The Journal of the Learning Science, 13(3), 273 – 304.

Rind, A. A., & Mughal, S. H. (2020). An Analysis of Pakistan’s National Curriculum of Mathematics at Secondary level. Electronic Journal of Education, Social Economics and Technology, 1(1), 39-42.

Sari, I., Marwan, M., & Hajidin, H. (2019). Students' Thinking Process in Solving Mathematical Problems in Build Flat Side Spaces of Material Reviewed from Adversity Quotient. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 2(2), 61-67.

Simons, K. D. && Klein, J. D. (2007). The impact of scaffolding and students’ achievement levels in a problem-based learning environment instructional science. 35(1), 41-72.

Uduafemhe, M. E. (2015). Comparative effects of scaffolding and collaborative instructional approaches on secondary school students’ psychomotor achievement in basic electronics in North-central Nigeria. 10SR Journal of Engineering (10SRJEN) 5(6), 23 – 31.

Uwadaiae, I. (2010). WAEC releases May/June WASSCE results. Thisday Newspaper of 20/8/2017.

Usmadi, U., Hasanah, H., & Ergusni, E. (2020). The impact of the implementation three-step interview cooperative learning model in mathematics learning toward the learners’ activities and outcomes. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 3(1), 8-12.


Article Metrics

#### view : 59 times
PDF 26 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Nwoke Bright Ihechukwu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning are abstracting & indexing in the following databases:

Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning also has been listed and archives in the following databases: SHERPA/RoMEO Policy, LOCKSS Archieving System, ULRICHSWEB Proquest, EZB Universitat Reqensburq, Open Science Directory by EBSCO information service and ROAD ISSN.

Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML)