The Critical Thinking Abilities in Learning Using Elementary Algebra E-Books: A Case Study at Public Universities in Indonesia

Mursalin Mursalin


The learning Algebra courses are often taught using coventional textbooks. However, the reality of the learning outcomes has not been able to absorb the material to the maximum extent possible, and this is because the textbooks is limited in number so that students only record some of what is taught by the Lecturer. At the same time, electronic books are available free of charge in several world libraries. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability to think critically mathematically through the use of Elementary Algebra electronic books. The study of the method are used a Quasi Experiment with a nonrandomized Pre-test Post-test Control Group Design research design. The study population was all students who took Elementary Algebra in the Department of Mathematics Education, Malikussaleh University, in the Even Semester 2018/2019 academic year. Sample for the study was students of class A1 as an Experiment group using E-books for Teaching, and Class A2 as a Control group with lectures using conventional textbooks. The results showed that the mathematical critical thinking ability of students taught using Electronic books was better than the mathematical critical thinking ability of students who were taught using conventional textbooks. Thus the use of elementary algebra electronic books (E-books) can improve students' mathematical critical thinking skills in learning Algebra.


Critical Thinking Ability; Elementary Algebra; E-books; Conventional Books;

Full Text:



Appleton, L. (2005b). Using electronic textbooks: promoting, placing and embedding. The Electronic Library. DOI:

Appleton, L. (2004a). The use of electronic books in midwifery education: the student perspective. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 21(4), 245-252. DOI:

Buzzetto-More, N., Guy, R., & Elobaid, M. (2007). Reading in a digital age: e-books are students ready for this learning object?. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 3(1), 239-250.

Ciampa, K. (2012). Reading in the digital age: Using electronic books as a teaching tool for beginning readers. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 38(2), n2. DOI:

De Jong, M. T., & Bus, A. G. (2004). The efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(4), 378-393. DOI:

Garrison, D. R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The internet and higher education, 7(2), 95-105. DOI:

Grant, J. M. (2004). Are electronic books effective in teaching young children reading and comprehension?. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31(3), 303-309.

Grimshaw, S., Dungworth, N., McKnight, C., & Morris, A. (2007). Electronic books: Children’s reading and comprehension. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(4), 583-599.

Herrington, J., Herrington, A., Mantei, J., Olney, I. W., & Ferry, B. (2009). New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education.

Kissinger, J. S. (2013). The social & mobile learning experiences of students using mobile E-books. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 17(1), 155-170.

Korat, O., & Shamir, A. (2012). Direct and indirect teaching: Using e-books for supporting vocabulary, word reading, and story comprehension for young children. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 46(2), 135-152. DOI:

Moody, A. K. (2010). Using electronic books in the classroom to enhance emergent literacy skills in young children. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 11(4), 22-52.

Nelson, M. R. (2008). E-books in higher education: nearing the end of the era of hype?. Educause Review, 43(2), 40-42.

Nie, M., Armellini, A., Witthaus, G., & Barklamb, K. (2011). How do e-book readers enhance learning opportunities for distance work-based learners?. Research in Learning Technology, 19(1), 19-38. DOI:

Ogata, H., Oi, M., Mohri, K., Okubo, F., Shimada, A., Yamada, M., & Hirokawa, S. (2017). Learning analytics for e-book-based educational big data in higher education. In Smart Sensors at the IoT Frontier (pp. 327-350). Springer, Cham. DOI:

Olofsson, A. D., & Lindberg, J. O. (2011). Informed design of educational technologies in higher education: Enhanced learning and teaching. Simulation, 379.

Olsen, A. N., Kleivset, B., & Langseth, H. (2013). E-book readers in higher education: Student reading preferences and other data from surveys at the University of Agder. Sage Open, 3(2), DOI:

Porter, W. W., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. A., & Welch, K. R. (2014). Blended learning in higher education: Institutional adoption and implementation. Computers & Education, 75, 185-195.


Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-5.,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

Shirattudin, N., Hassan, S., & Landoni, M. (2003). A usability study for promoting eContent in higher education. Educational Technology& Society, 6(4), 112-124.

Smith, M., & Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2012). Building mobile learning capacity in higher education: E-books and iPads.

Weeks, L. (2002, July 6). Ebooks not exactly flying off the shelves: Most readers stick to paper despite technology’s hype. The Washington Post.

Wilson, R. (2003). Ebook readers in higher education. Education Technology and Society, 6(4), 8-17.


Woody, W. D., Daniel, D. B., & Baker, C. A. (2010). E-books or textbooks: Students prefer textbooks. Computers & Education, 55(3), 945-948. DOI:

Yager, S. E., & Szabo, Z. (2011, May). Using an e-Book to teach technology: Effects on student performance. In Proceedings of the 49th SIGMIS annual conference on Computer personnel research (pp. 6-10). DOI:

Zucker, T. A., Moody, A. K., & McKenna, M. C. (2009). The effects of electronic books on pre-kindergarten-to-grade 5 students' literacy and language outcomes: A research synthesis. Journal Of Educational Computing Research, 40(1), 47-87.


Article Metrics

#### view : 108 times
PDF 35 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Mursalin Mursalin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning are abstracting & indexing in the following databases:

Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning also has been listed and archives in the following databases: SHERPA/RoMEO Policy, LOCKSS Archieving System, ULRICHSWEB Proquest, EZB Universitat Reqensburq, Open Science Directory by EBSCO information service and ROAD ISSN.

Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML)