Environmental Learning based on Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Needs Assessment

Ilmi Zajuli Ichsan, Diana Vivanti Sigit, Mieke Miarsyah


Environmental learning at the school and university levels, often still uses conventional learning. This is a problem, considering the ability of students' Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is very necessary for the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to do need assessment on learning media, teaching materials, learning materials, worksheets, and learning evaluations used in the learning environment in schools and universities. The study was conducted from November 2017 - January 2019 at several schools in Bekasi and one university in Jakarta. The research method used is descriptive method with data collection techniques using observation and interviews. The results showed that media learning, teaching materials, learning materials, students worksheets, and learning evaluations at various levels were not all based on HOTS. HOTS-based learning has been applied at the university level and senior high school but is still rarely used. This is due to the lack of development in environmental learning. The conclusion of this study is that environmental learning is not all HOTS-based.


Environmental learning; Higher Order Thinking Skills; Need assessment

Full Text:



Afflerbach, P., Cho, B. Y., & Kim, J. Y. (2015). Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading. Theory into Practice, 54(3), 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2015.1044367

Alias, N., DeWitt, D., & Siraj, S. (2013). Design and Development of Webquest for Physics Module by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 273–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.335

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airiasian, W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., & Pintrich, P. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational outcomes: Complete edition. New York: Longman.

Bojey, M., Hui, B., & Campbell, R. (2014). Engaging higher order thinking skills with a personalized physics tutoring system. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8474 LNCS, 613–614. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07221-0_78

Camacho, D. J., & Legare, J. M. (2015). Opportunities to Create Active Learning Techniques in the Classroom. Journal of Instructional Research, 4, 38–45.

Choudri, B. S., Baawain, M., Al-Zeidi, K., Al-Nofli, H., Al-Busaidi, R., & Al-Fazari, K. (2017). Citizen perception on environmental responsibility of the corporate sector in rural areas. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 19(6), 2565–2576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-016-9855-y

Dangelico, R. M., Pujari, D., & Pontrandolfo, P. (2017). Green Product Innovation in Manufacturing Firms: A Sustainability-Oriented Dynamic Capability Perspective. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(4), 490–506. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.1932

Dubas, J. M., & Toledo, S. A. (2016). Taking higher order thinking seriously: Using Marzano’s taxonomy in the economics classroom. International Review of Economics Education, 21, 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iree.2015.10.005

Fisher-Maltese, C., & Zimmerman, T. D. (2015). A garden-based approach to teaching life science produces shifts in students’ attitudes toward the environment. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10(1), 51–66. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijese.2015.230a

FitzPatrick, B., & Schulz, H. (2015). Do Curriculum Outcomes and Assessment Activities in Science Encourage Higher Order Thinking? Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 15(2), 136–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/14926156.2015.1014074

Hamden, M., & Low, K. C. P. (2015). Ecotourism development in Brunei Darussalam. Transnational Corporations Review, 6(3), 248–272. https://doi.org/10.5148/tncr.2014.6304

Hidayati, N., & Wuryandari, A. I. (2012). Media Design for Learning Indonesian in Junior High School Level. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 67, 490–499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.354

Hugerat, M., & Kortam, N. (2014). Improving higher order thinking skills among freshmen by teaching science through inquiry. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 10(5), 447–454. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2014.1107a

Husamah, H., Fatmawati, D., & Setyawan, D. (2018). OIDDE Learning Model : Improving Higher Order Thinking Skills of Biology Teacher Candidates. Interntaional Journal of Instruction, 11(2), 249–264.

Hwang, G.-J., Lai, C.-L., Liang, J.-C., Chu, H.-C., & Tsai, C.-C. (2018). A long-term experiment to investigate the relationships between high school students’ perceptions of mobile learning and peer interaction and higher-order thinking tendencies. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66(1), 75–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-017-9540-3

Koutsoukos, M., Fragoulis, I., & Valkanos, E. (2015). Connection of environmental education with application of experiential teaching methods: A case study from Greece. International Education Studies, 8(4), 23–28. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n4p23

Lee, K., & Lai, Y. (2017). Facilitating higher-order thinking with the flipped classroom model: a student teacher’s experience in a Hong Kong secondary school. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-017-0048-6

Lekakos, G., Vlachos, P., & Koritos, C. (2014). Green is good but is usability better? Consumer reactions to environmental initiatives in e-banking services. Ethics and Information Technology, 16(2), 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-014-9337-6

Murphy, C., Bianchi, L., McCullagh, J., & Kerr, K. (2013). Scaling up higher order thinking skills and personal capabilities in primary science: Theory-into-policy-into-practice. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 10, 173–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2013.06.005

Mustam, B., & Daniel, E. S. (2016). Informal and Formal Environmental Education Infusion: Actions of Malaysian Teachers and Parents among Students in a Polluted Area. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(1), 9–20. Retrieved from http://www.moj-es.net/frontend/articles/pdf/v04i01/v04-i01-01.pdf

Narayanan, S., & Adithan, M. (2015). Analysis of Question Papers in Engineering Courses with Respect to HOTs (Higher Order Thinking Skills). American Journal of Engineering Education, 6(1), 1–10.

Quieng, M. C., Lim, P. P., & Lucas, M. R. D. (2015). 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 11(1), 72–81. https://doi.org/10.13187/ejced.2015.11.72

Ritter, S. M., & Mostert, N. (2017). Enhancement of Creative Thinking Skills Using a Cognitive-Based Creativity Training. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 1(3), 243–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-016-0002-3

Roderer, T., & Roebers, C. M. (2014). Can you see me thinking (about my answers)? Using eye-tracking to illuminate developmental differences in monitoring and control skills and their relation to performance. Metacognition and Learning, 9(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-013-9109-4

Said, A., & Syarif, E. (2016). The Development of Online Tutorial Program Design Using Problem-Based Learning in Open Distance Learning System. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(18), 222–229.

Saido, G. A. M., Siraj, S., DeWitt, D., & Al-Amedy, O. S. (2018). Development of an instructional model for higher order thinking in science among secondary school students: a fuzzy Delphi approach. International Journal of Science Education, 40(8), 847–866. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2018.1452307

Sharif, A., & Cho, S. (2015). 21st-Century Instructional Designers: Bridging the Perceptual Gaps between Identity, Practice, Impact and Professional Development. RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 12(3), 72–85. https://doi.org/10.7238/rusc.v12i3.2176

Sriwongchai, A., Jantharajit, N., & Chookhampaeng, S. (2015). Developing the Mathematics Learning Management Model for Improving Creative Thinking In Thailand. International Education Studies, 8(11), 77–87. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n11p77

Tajudin, N. M., & Chinnappan, M. (2016). The Link between Higher Order Thinking Skills, Representation and Concepts in Enhancing TIMSS Tasks. International Journal of Instruction, 9(2), 199–214. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2016.9214a

Talmi, I., Hazzan, O., & Katz, R. (2018). Intrinsic Motivation and 21st-Century Skills in an Undergraduate Engineering Project: The Formula Student Project. Higher Education Studies, 8(4), 46. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v8n4p46

Tanujaya, B., Mumu, J., & Margono, G. (2017). The Relationship between Higher Order Thinking Skills and Academic Performance of Student in Mathematics Instruction. International Education Studies, 10(11), 78–85. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n11p78

Teimourtash, M., & YazdaniMoghaddam, M. (2017). On the Plausibility of Bloom’s Higher Order Thinking Strategies on Learner Autonomy: The Paradigm Shift. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 2(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40862-017-0037-8

Vidergor, H. E. (2018). Effectiveness of the multidimensional curriculum model in developing higher-order thinking skills in elementary and secondary students. Curriculum Journal, 29(1), 95–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2017.1318771

Yang, K. K., Lee, L., Hong, Z. R., & Lin, H. S. (2016). Investigation of effective strategies for developing creative science thinking. International Journal of Science Education, 38(13), 2133–2151. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2016.1230685

Yavich, R., & Starichenko, B. (2017). Design of Education Methods in a Virtual Environment. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(9), 176. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v5i9.2613

Yee, M. H., Yunos, J. M., Othman, W., Hassan, R., Tee, T. K., & Mohamad, M. M. (2015). Disparity of Learning Styles and Higher Order Thinking Skills among Technical Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204(November 2014), 143–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.127

Yusnaeni, Y., Corebima, A. D., Susilo, H., & Zubaidah, S. (2017). Creative Thinking of Low Academic Student Undergoing Search Solve Create and Share Learning Integrated with Metacognitive Strategy. International Journal of Instruction, 10(2), 245–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2011.10.010

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29103/ijevs.v1i1.1389

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 2540 times
 PDF Downloaded : 791 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Ilmi Zajuli Ichsan, Diana Vivanti Sigit, Mieke Miarsyah

International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies (IJEVS)

E-ISSN : 2684-6950