The Effectiveness of Thematic Learning with Thinking Actively in a Social Context and Creative Problem Solving Learning Models on Divergent Thinking Skills

Muna Fauziah, Sri Marmoah, Tri Murwaningsih


The aim of this research is to find out the effect of Thinking Actively in a Social Context, Creative Problem Solving, and Direct Instruction learning models on students' divergent thinking skills. The quantitative research with a quasi-experimental method was used as the research approach. The research subjects include the fifth-grade students at the public elementary schools in Laweyan District, Surakarta, Indonesia. The data were collected using test and non-test techniques. They were then analyzed using the prerequisite test, hypothesis test and multiple-comparison test. The results show that the learning model has an effect on divergent thinking skills. The selection of TASC and CPS learning models has an effect on the students’ activeness in learning, so teachers can consider these models to be applied in learning with integrated thematic teaching materials in the 2013 curriculum.


Divergent Thinking; Learning Model; Elementary Schools;


Adnan, A., Beaty, R., Silvia, P., Spreng, R. N., & Turner, G. R. (2019). Creative aging: functional brain networks associated with divergent thinking in older and younger adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 75(1), 150–158. Doi:

Apino, E., & Retnawati, H. (2016). Creative problem solving to improve students’ higher order thinking skills in mathematics instructions thinking. Proceeding of 3rd International Conference on Research, Implementation and Education of Mathematics and Science, (May), 16–17.

Ayaz, M. F., & Sekerci, H. (2015). The effects of the constructivist learning approach on student’s academic achievement : a meta-analysis study. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 14(4), 143–156.

Azimigaroosi, S., Zhiean, F., & Farahmand, H. (2015). On the comparison of effectiveness of direct instruction method and multimedia instruction on students suffering from special learning disorder along with defects in dictation. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 62(1), 8–15. Doi:

Benlliure, V. A., & Santos, M. R. (2016). Creativity development trajectories in elementary education: Differences in divergent and evaluative skills. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 19, 160–174. Doi:

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th ed.). New York: Routledge.

Dariman, K. (2019). Students’ creative thinking with 4'R applications in procedure text project based learning. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(1), 15-20. Doi:

Fitton, S., & Gilderdale, C. (2008). A case study of the use of TASC at Ollerton community primary school, UK. Gifted Education International, 24(2), 217–224.

Kuhn, J., & Holling, H. (2009). Exploring the nature of divergent thinking : A multilevel analysis. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4(1), 116–123. Doi:

Lakey, J., & Einstein, A. (2009). Purposeful, creative problem solving. Gifted Education International, 25(1), 60–70. Doi:

Leyland, P. (2009). Thinking actively in a social context. Gifted Education International, 25(49), 301–305.

Mahanal, S., Zubaidah, S., & Bahri, A. (2016). Improving students critical thinking skills through Remap NHT in biology classroom. 17(1), 1–19.

Maltby, F. (1993). Teaching mathematics through ‘thinking actively in a social context’. Gifted Education International, 9(1), 45–47. Doi:

Minister of Education and Culture Regulation. (2016). Minister of Education and Culture Regulation Number 21 Year 2016 concerning Basic and Secondary Education Content Standards. Indonesia: Indonesian Government Publishing Service.

Muglia, S., Saiz, C., Rivas, S. F., Maria, C., Vendramini, M., Almeida, L. S., … Franco, A. (2018). Creative and critical thinking : Independent or overlapping components?. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27(December 2017), 114–122. Doi:

OECD. (2015). Pisa Results in Focus 2015. Retrieved from

Ortiz, D. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. In Qualitative Research Journal (3rd ed., Vol. 6). Doi:

Puccio, G., Burnett, C., Acar, S., Yudes, J., Holinger, M., & Cabra, J. (2018). Creative problem solving in small groups : the effects of creativity training on idea generation, solution creativity, and leadership effectiveness. Journal of Creative Behavior, 0(0), 1–19. Doi:

Rudyanto, H. E., Wangid, M. N., & Gembong, S. (2019). The use of bring your own device-based learning to measure student algebraic thinking ability. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(23), 233–241. Doi:

Sari, D. M., Ikhsan, M., & Abidin, Z. (2018). The development of learning instruments using the creative problem-solving learning model to improve students’ creative thinking skills in mathematics. IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series, 1088(1), 1–5. Doi:

Sari, R. N., Ahda, Y., & Fitria, Y. (2019). Effectiveness of guided inquiry learning model and problem based learning model on thematic. International Journal of Educational Dynamics, 1(2), 257–264.

Sharma, N., & Dhingra, R. (2018). Assesment of opportunities available to school children for the development of divergent thinking ability. International Journal of Current Advanced Research, 7(9), 15301–15307. Doi:

Su, G., Jong, C., Lee, Y., & Seob, H. (2015). Development of a quantitative analysis model of creative problem solving ability in computer textbooks. Cluster Comput, 15(1), 1–13. Doi:

Subali, B., & Mariyam, S. (2016). The divergent thinking of basic skills of sciences process skills of life aspects on natural sciences subject in indonesian elementary school students. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 17(1), 23. Retrieved from


Utomo, D. H., Malang, U. N., & Aceh, B. (2019). Measuring students scientific learning perception and critical thinking skill using paper-based testing : school and gender differences. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(19), 132–149. Doi:

Wallace, B., Molyneux, C., & Farrell, C. (2012). TASC : Thinking Actively in a Social Context A universal process : A powerful tool to promote differentiated learning experiences. Gifted Education International, 28(1), 58–83. Doi:

Wang, A. Y. (2012). Exploring the relationship of creative thinking to reading and writing. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7(1), 38–47. Doi:

Wang, H. (2018). Fostering learner creativity in the english L2 classroom: application of the creative problem-solving model. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 31, 58-59. Doi:

Wu, J., & Albanese, D. L. (2013). Imagination and creativity : wellsprings and streams of education – the Taiwan Experience. Educational Psychology, 33(5), 561–581. Doi:

Wuryani, M. T., Roemintoyo, & Yamtinah, S. (2018). Textbooks thematic based character education on thematic learning primary school : an influence. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 4(2), 75–81. Doi:

Yuan, H., Lu, K., & Hao, N. (2018). Personality and individual differences interactive effect of motivational motor action and emotion on divergent thinking. Personality and Individual Differences, 131(3663), 93–98. Doi:

Zabelina, D. L., & Ganis, G. (2018). Creativity and cognitive control: Behavioral and ERP evidence that divergent thinking, but not real-life creative achievement, relates to better cognitive control. Neuropsychologia, 118(1), 20–28. Doi:


Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 792 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Muna Fauziah, Sri Marmoah, Tri Murwaningsih