Grammar Learning At Tertiary Level In Indonesia: A Curriculum Development Of Genre-Task Based Approach

Wuwuh Asrining Surasmi, Suparti Suparti, Eka Fadilah


This article explores the grammar learning in two influential English language teaching (ELT) curriculum approaches to tertiary level and the potential approach to interweave them. The two prominent approaches shaping language learning in Indonesia are communicative language teaching (CLT) specified in Task-based Instruction and Genre approaches rooted in Systemic Functional Language (SFL). Given the various curriculum which comes and goes, bringing together with miscellaneous methods or approaches, it is urgently needed to adapt rather than adopt the wholesale methods or approaches by making the nexus between those two aproaches to fit the context. This article aims at revisiting creative and innovative grammar teaching and learning at tertiary educational level. We elucidate how those approaches foster English as a Foreign Language (EFL), notably, how grammar should be learnt and assessed through them.


Grammar Learning; Genre-Task Based Approach; Curriculum development

Full Text:



Ariatna (2016). The need for maintaining CLT in Indonesia. TESOL Journal, 7(3), 1-23.

Aunurrahman, Hamied, F.,A., & Emilia, E. (2017). Exploring the tertiary EFL students’ academic writing competencies. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistic, 7 (1), 72-79.

Bax, S. (2003). The end of CLT: A context approach to language teaching. ELT Journal, 57 (3), 278–287

Benson, P. (2017). Ways of seeing: The individual and the social in applied linguistics research methodologies. Language Teaching, 1-11. doi.:10.1017/S0261444817000234

Byrnes, H. & Manchon, R. (2014). Task-based language learning: Insights from and for L2 writing: An introduction. In H. Byrnes & R. Manchon (Eds.), Task based language learning: Insights from and for L2 writing (pp. 1–26). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins.

Byrnes, H., Maxim, H. H., & Norris, J. M. (2010). Realizing advanced foreign language writing development in collegiate education: Curricular design, pedagogy, assessment. Modern Language Journal, 94 (Supplement).

Byrnes, H. (2009). Emergent L2 German writing ability in a curricular context: A longitudinal study of grammatical metaphor. Linguistics and Education, 20, 50 – 66.

Byrnes, H., Crane, C., Maxim, H. H., & Sprang, K. A. (2006). Taking text to task: Issues and choices in curriculum construction. ITL-International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15 (2), 85 –109.

Canagarajah, A. S. (2014). In search of a new paradigm for teaching English as an international language. TESOL Journal, 5, 767–785.

Chappell, P. (2014). Group work in the English language curriculum: Sociocultural and ecological perspectives on second language classroom learning. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Christie, F. (2012). Language learning through the school years: A functional perspective. Malden, MA: Wiley & Sons.

Christie, F. & Derewianka, B. (2008). School discourse: Learning to write across the year of schooling. London: Continuum.

Colombi, M. C. (2006). Grammatical metaphor: Academic language development in Latino students of Spanish. In H. Byrnes (Eds.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky (pp. 147–163). London, England: Continuum.

East, M. (2017). Research into practice: The task-based approach to instructed second language acquisition. Language Teaching, 50 (3), 412-424.

Ellis, R. (2017). Position paper: Moving task-based language teaching forward. Language Teaching, 50 (4), 507-526.

Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2013). Exploring Language Pedagogy through Second Language Acquisition Research. London, England: Routledge.

Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19, 221–246.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Emilia, E. & Hamied, F., A. (2015). Systemic functional linguistic genre pedagogy (SFL GP) in a tertiary EFL writing context in Indonesia. TEFLIN Journal, 26 (2), 155-180.

Erlam, R. (2016). I’m still not sure what a task is: Teachers designing language tasks. Language Teaching Research, 20, 279–299.

Fadilah, E., & Anugerahwati, M. (2019). Grammatical metaphor at tertiary level: Rise, development, and implications revisited. Argentinian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7 (1), 131-143.

Fadilah, E. (2018a). Oral corrective feedback on students’ grammatical accuracy and willingness to communicate in EFL classroom: the effects of focused and unfocused prompts. The Asian EFL Journal, 20 (4), 57-85.

Fadilah, E. (2018b). Rethinking the maintenance of CLT in Indonesia: A response to: Ariatna’s (Vol. 7, No. 2, 2016) “The Need for Maintaining CLT in Indonesia”. TESOL Journal, 9 (1), 224-236.doi: 10.1002/tesj.341

Fontaine, L. (2014). Analysing English grammar: A systemic functional introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2012). Raising teachers’ awareness of corpora. Language Teaching, 45 (4), 475– 489.

Graves, K., & Garton, S. (2017). An analysis of three curriculum approaches to teaching English in public-sector schools. Language Teaching, 50, 441–482.

Halliday, M. A. K. & C. M. Matthiessen (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd edn.). London: Arnold.

Halliday, M.A.K. (1994). Introduction to Functional Grammar (2nd edition). London: Arnold.

Hlas, A.,C. (2018). Grand challenges and great potentialin foreign language teaching and learning. Foreign Language Annals, 51, 46-54.

Jones, R.H., & Lock, G. (2011). Functional grammar in the ESL classroom: Noticing, exploring, and practicing. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to post-method. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2017). Just Learning. Language Teaching, 50 (3), 425-437.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2015). Saying what we mean: Making the case for second language acquisition to become second language development. Language Teaching, 48 (4), 491–505.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2011). Teaching and Testing Grammar. In M. Long, & C. Doughty (Eds.), Handbook of language teaching (pp. 518–542). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Liamkina, O., & Ryshina-Pankova, M. (2012). Grammar dilemma: Teaching grammar as a resource for making meaning. Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 270-289.

Li. S., Ellis, R., Zhu, Y. (2016). Task-based versus task-supported language instruction: an experimental study. Annual Review of Applied Linguistic, 36, 205-229.

Lin, A.,M.,Y. (2016). Language across the curriculum & CLIL in English as an additional language (EAL) contexts: Theory and practice. Singapore: Springer.

Littlewood, W. (2014). Communication-oriented language teaching: Where are we now? Where do we go from here? Language Teaching, 47, 349–362.

Littlewood, W. (2007). Communicative and task-based language teaching in East Asian classrooms. Language Teaching, 40(3), 243–249.

Long, M., H.(2016). In defense of tasks and TBLT: Nonissues and real issues. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, pp. 5–33.

Long, M., H. (2015). Second language acquisition and task based language teaching. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Lyster, R., K. Saito & M. Sato (2013).Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching 46 (1), 1–40.

Macalister, J. (2011). Refreshing a writing course: the role of evolution. In J. Macalister & I.S.P. Nation (Ed.), Case studies in language curriculum design: Concepts and approaches in action around the world (pp. 114-128). New York: Routledge.

Nassaji, H. & Fotos, S. (2011). Teaching grammar in second language classrooms: Integrating form focused instruction in communicative context. New York and London: Routledge.

Nation, I.S.P. & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. New York: Routledge.

Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. London, England: Hodder Arnold.

Paesani, K. (2018). Researching literacies and textual thinking in collegiate foreign language programs: Reflections and recommendations. Foreign Language Annals, 51, 129–139.

Purpura, J. E. (2012). Assessment of grammar. In C. Chapelle (Ed.), the encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Purpura, J., E. (2004). Assessing grammar. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Romer, U. (2017). Language assessment and the inseparability of lexis and grammar: Focus on the construct of speaking. Language Testing, 34 (4), 477-492.

Ryshina-Pankova, M. (2010). Toward mastering the discourses of reasoning: Use of grammatical metaphor at advanced levels of foreign language acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 94, 181–197.

Samuda, V. & M. Bygate (2008). Tasks in second language learning. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sarandi, H. (2015). Reexamining elicited imitation as a measure of implicit grammatical knowledge and beyond…?. Language Testing, 32(4), 485-501.

Shehadeh, A. & Coombe, C. (2012). Task-based language teaching in foreign language contexts: Research and implementation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Shintani, N. (2012). Input-based tasks and the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar: A process-product study. Language Teaching Research, 16(2), 253-279.

Simon-Vandenberg, A.M., Taverniers, M. & Ravelli, L. (2003). Grammatical metaphor. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Spada, N., Jessop, L., Suzuki, W., Tomita, Y., & Valeo. (2014). Isolated and integrated form-focused Instruction: Effects on different types of L2 knowledge. Language Teaching Research, 18, 453–473.

Widiati, U., Suryati, N., & Hayati, N. (2017). Unraveling the challenges of Indonesian novice teachers of English. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistic, 7 (3), 621-629.

Widodo, H. P. (2016). Language policy in practice: Reframing the English language curriculum in the Indonesian secondary education sector. In R. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), English Language Education Policy in Asia (pp. 127-151). Switzerland: Springer.

Yasuda, S, (2017). Toward a framework for linking linguistic knowledge and writing expertise: Interplay between sfl-based genre pedagogy and task-based language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 51 (3), 576-606.

Zheng, X. & Borg, S. (2014). Task-based learning and teaching in China: Secondary school teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 18 (2), 205–221.


Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 297 times
 PDF Downloaded : 69 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Wuwuh Asrining Surasmi, Suparti, Eka Fadilah

International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies (IJEVS)

E-ISSN : 2684-6950