Aktivitas imunomodulator ekstrak rumput laut

Erniati Erniati, Riri Ezraneti

Abstract


Abstrak

Rumput laut merupakan sumber daya hayati perairan yang telah diteliti mengandung sejumlah komponen bioaktif untuk meningkatkan kesehatan manusia seperti meningkatkan sistem imun atau bersifat sebagai imunomodulator.Penulisan artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan lebih jauh tentang sifat imunomodulator rumput laut, diharapkan tulisan ini dapat memberikan informasi ilmiah tentang rumput laut sebagai imunomodulator, sehingga nantinya dapat dikembangkan lagi penelitian ilmiah tentang pemanfaatan rumput laut sebagai imunomodulator.Rumput laut dapat meningkatkan sistem imun spesifik dan non spesifik melalui berbagai sel imun seperti sel makrofag, monosit atau sel limfosit melalui berbagai mekanisme di tingkat seluler.Sifat imunomodulator rumput laut dalam meningkatkan aktivasi makrofag terjadi melalui peningkatan proliferasi makrofag, produksi NO dan sekresi sitokin. Rumput laut juga dapat memodulasi aktivitas makrofag secara in vitro dan in vivo yaitu melalui ekspresi reseptor dan sitokin inflamasi seperti tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) dan interleukin-1β (IL-1β)., produksi NO dan PGE2 dan ekspresi gen NOS-2 dan COX-2. Sifat imunomodulator rumput laut juga terjadi melalui peningkatan fungsi dan aktivitas limfosit. Ekstrak atau komponen bioaktif rumput laut dapat meningkatkan aktivasi limfosit, diantaranya menstimulasi aktivitas sel limfosit B yaitu melalui peningkatan produksi antibodi imonoglobulin (Ig), meningkatkan proliferasi sel T dan produksi subset limfosit T seperti CD4 dan CD8. Ekstrak rumput laut juga telah diteliti  mempengaruhi ekspresi mRNA untuk meningkatkan produksi  sitokin oleh Th1 seperti TNF-α dan IFN-γ, dan menurunkan sitokin yang diproduksi oleh Th2 seperti  IL-4 dan IL-10 serta  meningkatkan produksi IL-2 pada sel limfosit T.

Kata kunci: rumput laut; komponen bioaktif; imunomodulatori; makrofag

Abstract

Seaweed is one of the marine biological resources that is known to contain bioactive compounds to improve human health, such as enhancing the immune system or being as an immunomodulator. This study aims to explain more about the nature of seaweed immunomodulators so that scientific research could be developed in the use of seaweed as an immunomodulator later. Seaweed could increase specific and nonspecific immune systems by involving various immune cells such as macrophage cells, monocytes, or lymphocyte cells through various mechanisms at the cellular level. The role of Immunomodulatory properties of seaweed in increasing macrophage activation occurs through increasing macrophage proliferation, NO production, and cytokine secretion. Seaweed would modulate macrophage activity in vitro and in vivo through the expression of inflammatory receptors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), NO and PGE2 production and NOS-gene expression 2 and COX-2. Seaweed immunomodulatory activity would also occur through increasing function and activity of lymphocytes that stimulate the activity of B lymphocyte cells, production of antibody immunoglobulin (Ig), T cell proliferation and production of T lymphocyte subsets such as CD4 and CD8. Seaweed extracts also have been investigated to be able to affect mRNA expression to increase cytokine production by Th1 such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, decrease cytokines produced by Th2 such as IL-4 and IL-10 and increase IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

Keywords: seaweed; bioactive components; immunomodulatory; macrophage

 



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29103/aa.v7i2.2463

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