Comparative Study of Levels of Academic Self Esteem and Academic Achievement in Mathematics among Pupils of Two and Single Parent Families

Unamba Unamba, Okwara Kalu, Ibe Georgeline


The study aimed at comparing levels of academic self-esteem and academic achievement in mathematics among students of two and single parent families. Based on the purposes of the study two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of the study was comparative survey research design. The population of the study comprised all 1,267 SS2 students in Owerri Municipal Council Area of Imo State. The instruments used for data collection were Academic Self Esteem Questionnaire (ASEQ) and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) to obtain relevant data. The validity of the instruments was done by experts in Measurement and Evaluation and one expert each from Educational psychology and Mathematics Education. The reliability of the instruments was 0.72 and 0.85, determined using Pearson Product Moment Correlational (PPMC) statistics were used. Data collected were analyzed using t-test at 0.05 level of significance. There is a statistically significant difference in levels of academic self-esteem and academic achievement in mathematics among students from single parent families and those from two parent families.


Self Esteem; Academic Achievement; Mathematics and Two and Single Parent Families

Full Text:



Adesehinwa, O. A. (2013). Effects of family type (monogamy or polygamy) on students’ academic achievement in Nigeria. International Journal of Psychology and Counselling, 5 (7), 153 – 156 DOI 10.5897/IJPC10.012 ISBN 2141-2499.

Akinleke, W., O. (2017). Impact of family structure on the academic performance of secondary school students in yewa local government area of ogun state, Nigeria International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research, 3(1) 1-10.

Amadu, M A. and Moses N., F. (2013). Influence Of Single Parenting On Pupils’ Academic Performance In Basic Schools In The Wa Municipality. International Journal of Education Learning and Development Vol.1, No.2, pp.85-94, December 2013.

Amato, P. (2000). The Consequences of Divorce: Theories and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1268 – 1287.

Anyakoha,C.,I.(2016). Single Parenting as Correlate of Academic Performance of Students in Unity Secondary School in South East Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria. International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE), Volume 5, Issue 2, December 2016.

Aryana, M. (2010). Relationships between self-esteem and academic achievement amongst pre-university students. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10(20), 2474- 2479.

Benokraitis., N. V. (2011). Marriages and Families, Changes, Choices & Constraint:Printice Hall New Jersey.

Biddulph, F., Biddulph, J. & Biddulph, C. (2003).The Complexity of Community and Family Influences on Children's Achievement in New Zealand: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). Ministry of Education. New Zealand.

Billings, W. (2012). Family Background and Students Learning Outcomes in Schools. McKini Press, Nairobi.

Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1991). Measures of self-esteem. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.) Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes, Volume I. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cai, J. (2003). Investigating parental roles in students' learning of mathematics from a cross-national perspective. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 15(2), 87-106.

Canadian Mental Health Association (2011) Children and self-esteem. Retrieved April 9, 2012, Dowd, Nancy, E. (1997). In Defense of Single-Parent Families. New York: New York University Press.ISBN 978-0-8147-1916-9.

Dahliana, D., Marhami, M., & Mursalin, M. (2019). Improving Students' Mathematical Critical Thinking Abilities Through the Problem Solving Method on the Sequences and Series Course. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(7), 813-816.


Elfhag, K., Tynelius, P.and Rasmussen. (2010). Self-Esteem Links in Families with 12-Year- Old Children and in Seperated Spouses. The Journal of Psychology; 144(4):341-59. Retrieved November 23, 2013 from the World Wide Web:

Ella, R.E., Odok, A.O. & Ella, G.E. (2015). Influence of Family Size and Family Type on Academic performance of Students in Government in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 2(11), 108 – 114.

Hakan, U.(2013) Comparison of Single and Two Parents Children in terms of Behavioral Tendencies. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 8 [Special Issue-April 2013].

Harris, S. L. (2009). The relationship between self-esteem and academic success among African American students in the minority engineering program at a research extensive university in the southern portion of the United States. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.

Herwig, J. E., Wirtz, M., & Bengel, J. (2004). Depression, partnership, social support, and parenting: Interaction of maternal factors with behavioral problems of the child. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80, 199-208.

Hetherington, M. E. (2003). Social support and the adjustment of children in divorced and remarried families.

Jackson, A.P. (2000). Maternal self-efficacy and children’s influence on stress and parenting among single black mothers in poverty. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 3-16.

James, M.,K. (2016) investigated influence of type of single parenthood influences a student’s self esteem from selected schools in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 21, Issue 6, Ver. 4 (June. 2016) PP 14-16.

Manassis, K. (1996) Keys to parenting your anxious child. Hauppague, New York: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.

McKay, M., Fanning, P. (2000). Self-Esteem third edition, A proven program of cognitive techniques for assessing, improving and maintaining your self-esteem. Oakland, California: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Michelle, B. (2012). Types of Family Structure. Retrieved March 17, 2018.

Mursalin, M. (2019). The Critical Thinking Abilities in Learning Using Elementary Algebra E-Books: A Case Study at Public Universities in Indonesia. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 2(1), 29-33.

Mintz, S., Kellog, S. (2016). Domestic Revolution, A Social History of America Family Life, New York, Free Press.

Moore, K.A., Vandivere, S., & Redd, Z. (2006). A sociodemographic risk index. Social Indicators Research, 75, 45-81.

Muhammad T., A*, Muhammad A.(2016). Family Structure and Emotional Intelligence of Secondary School Students in Islamabad. American Journal of Educational Research, 2016, Vol. 4, No. 9, 685-688.

Niswah, U., & Qohar, A. (2020). Mathematical Reasoning in Mathematics Learning on Pyramid Volume Concepts. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 3(1), 23-26.

Nufus, H., & Mursalin, M. (2020). Improving Students' Problem Solving Ability and Mathematical Communication through the Application of Problem Based Learning. Electronic Journal of Education, Social Economics and Technology, 1(1), 43-48. DOI: 10.33122/ejeset.v1i1.8

Nuraina, N., & Mursalin, M. (2018). Improving Students' Mathematical Communication Skills Through Learning Start Learning Models With A Question on Pythagoras. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 1(2), 44-47.


OECD/UNESCO-UIS, (2003). Family Background and Literacy Performance. retrieved May 9, 2016.

Parisa, R.(2011). The relationship between self-esteem, achievement goals and academic achievement among the primary school students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29 , 803 – 808

Peter, B.N. (2016). Analysis of Family Structure Influence on Academic performance Among Secondary School Students in Bungoma East Sub-County, Kenya. International Journal of Secondary School education. 4(2), 12-22. Retrieved May 9, 2018.

SAGE Publications. London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi, Vol.10 (2): 217–236.

Shokraii, N.H. (2000). The self-esteem fraud: Why feel-good education does not lead to academic success. Center For Equal Opportunity. Retrieved June 2010 from

Stone, A. (2012). Changing Patterns in Family Structure: The Plight of Children in Nigerian Schools. Macmillan Publishers Ltd., Nigeria.


Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 249 times
 PDF Downloaded : 66 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Unamba Unamba, Okwara Kalu, Ibe Georgeline

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML) are abstracting & indexing in the following databases:

Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML) also has been listed and archives in the following databases: SHERPA/RoMEO Policy, LOCKSS Archieving System, ULRICHSWEB Proquest, EZB Universitat Reqensburq, Open Science Directory by EBSCO information service and ROAD ISSN.