Gambaran Resiliensi Masyarakat Aceh Setelah Mengalami Pengalaman Traumatis

Nur Afni Safarina, Ella Suzanna


Aceh is one of the many areas affected by the disaster. In recent years, Aceh has caught the attention of most countries in the world because Aceh has just passed two major human tragedies. The first tragedy was the 30-year political conflict between the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), while the second human tragedy included the earthquake and tsunami disaster on 26 December 2004. There were many different responses to disaster management. Most children who survive have strong feelings after a traumatic event but recover from trauma; others have more difficulty recovering and will need additional assistance. The children who were exposed to traumatic experiences about 15 years ago are now adults. The hope is that these adult children will no longer experience trauma and be able to deal with problems properly. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate what factors influence the ability of the Acehnese people to recover and rise from traumatic experiences. The ability that an individual has to 'bounce back' from traumatic experiences is known as the resilience factor. Furthermore, in this study, the researcher intends to analyze not only how individuals cope with traumatic experiences, but also how they grow and develop after exposure to psychological trauma.


Traumatic Experiences; post-conflict trauma; tsunami; resiliency; North Aceh

Full Text:



Barron, P., & Burke, A. (2008). Supporting peace in Aceh: Development agencies and international involvement. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Bentz, V. M., & Shapiro, J. J. (1998). Mindful enquiry in social research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Berg, B. L. (1989). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2007). When a trauma becomes a key to identity: Enhanced integration of trauma memories predicts posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(4), 417-431.

Berry, J., Fazili, A., Farhad, S., Nasiry, F., Hashemi, S., & Hakimi, M. (2003). The Children of Kabul: Discussions with Afghan Families. Retrieved 7th April 2013 from

Betancourt, T. S., & Khan, K. T. (2008). The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience. International Review of Psychiatry, 20(3), 317-328.

Blasi, A., & Glodis, K. (1995). The development of identity. A critical analysis from the perspective of the self as subject. Developmental Review, 15(4), 404-433.

Bogar, C. B., & Hulse-Killacky, D. (2006). Resiliency determinants and resiliency processes among female adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(3), 318-327.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Burnard, P. (1991). A method of analyzing interview transcripts in qualitative research. Nurse Education Today, 11, 461-466.

Catani, C., Jacob, N., Schauer, E., Kohila, M., & Neuner, F. (2008). Family violence, war, and natural disasters: A study of the effect of extreme stress on children's mental health in Sri Lanka. BMC psychiatry, 8(1), 33.

Catani, C., Gewirtz, A. H., Wieling, E., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2010). Tsunami, war, and cumulative risk in the lives of Sri Lankan schoolchildren. Child Development, 81(4), 1176-1191.

Cieurzo, C., & Keitel, M. A. (1999). Ethics in qualitative research. In M. Kopala & L. Suzuki (Eds.), Using qualitative method in psychology (pp.25-36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Cobb, N. J. (2007). Adolescence: continuity, change, and diversity (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Mc Graw Hill.

Daiute, C. (2010). Human development and political violence. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Dawson, K. (2011). Childhood reactions to trauma in a Muslim context. Master’s Thesis. University of New South Wales.

Dimitry, L. (2012). A systematic review on the mental health of children and adolescents in areas of armed conflict in the Middle East. Child: Care, Health and Development, 38(2), 153-161.

Dyregrov, A., Gupta, L., Gjestad, R., & Mukanoheli, E. (2000). Trauma exposure and psychological reactions to genocide among Rwandan children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(1), 3-21.

Frankenberg, E., Friedman, J., Gillespie, T., Ingwersen, N., Pynoos, R., Rifai, I. U., ... & Thomas, D. (2008). Mental health in Sumatra after the tsunami. American Journal of Public Health, 98(9).

Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55(1), 97-111.

Good, B. J., Good, M. J. D., Grayman, J., & Lakoma, M. (2007). A psychosocial needs assessment of communities in 14 conflict-affected districts in Aceh. Banda Aceh: International Organization for Migration.

Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1). Article 4. Retrieved 11th December 2012.

de Gryse, B., & Laumont, B. (2007). Médecins Sans Frontiéres: Mental health care in post-tsunami Aceh Province, a field report. Intervention, 5(2), 130-143.

Harter, S. (2006). The self. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.). Handbook of child psychology (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Hartini, N. (2010). Bencana tsunami dan stress pasca trauma pada anak. Jurnal Masyarakat Kebudayaan dan Politik, 22(3), 259-264.

Hestyanti, Y. R. (2006). Children survivors of the 2004 tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094(1), 303-307.

Holloway, I. (1997). Basic concepts for qualitative research. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Irmansyah, I., Dharmono, S., Maramis, A., & Minas, H. (2010). Determinants of psychological morbidity in survivors of the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and Nias. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 4(8). doi: 10.1186/1752-4458-4-8

Jones, L. (2008). Responding to the needs of children in crisis. International Review of Psychiatry, 20(3), 291-303.

Keppel-Benson, J. M., Ollendick, T. H., & Benson, M. J. (2002). Post-traumatic stress in children following motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(2), 203-212.

Kithakye, M., Morris, A. S., Terranova, A. M., & Myers, S. S. (2010). The Kenyan political conflict and children’s adjustment. Child Development, 81(4), 1114- 1128.

Klasen, F., Oettingen, G., Daniels, J., Post, M., Hoyer, C., & Adam, H. (2010). Posttraumatic resilience in former Ugandan child soldiers. Child Development, 81(4), 1096-1113.

Krisetya, M. L. (2008). Spirituality and Trauma-healing: the Aceh experience. Asian Perspectives on Peacebuilding, 34-40.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543-562.

Maegusuku-Hewett, T., Dunkerley, D., Scourfield, J., & Smalley, N. (2007). Refugee children in Wales: Coping and adaptation in the face of adversity. Children and Society, 21(4), 309-321.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. (1999). Designing qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227–238.

Merrick, E. (1999). An exploration of quality in qualitative research: Are “reliability and validity” relevant? In M. Kopala & L. Suzuki (Eds.), Using qualitative method in psychology (pp.25-36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Miles, M., & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. A sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Nader, K. (2008). Understanding and assessing trauma in children and adolescents. New York: Routledge.

Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Catani, C., Ruf, M., & Elbert, T. (2006). Post-tsunami stress: A study of posttraumatic stress disorder in children living in three severely affected regions in Sri Lanka. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(3), 339-347.

Petersen, A. C., & Leffert, N. (1995). What is special about adolescence? In M. Rutter (Ed.), Psychosocial disturbance in young people: Challenges for prevention (pp. 3-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pfefferbaum B, Stuber J, Galea S, et al.(2006). Panic reactions to terrorist attacks and probable posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents. Journal of Trauma Stress, 19, 217–228

Price, J., & Lento, J. (2001). The nature of child and adolescent vulnerability. In R. E. Ingram & J. M. Price (Eds.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: Risk across the lifespan (pp. 20-38). New York: Guilford Press.

Rice, K. G., Herman, M. A., & Petersen, A. C. (1993). Coping with challenge in adolescence: A conceptual model and psycho-educational intervention. Journal of Adolescence, 16(3), 235-251.

Schaal, S., & Elbert, T. (2006). Ten years after the genocide: Trauma confrontation and posttraumatic stress in Rwandan adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(1), 95-105.

Souza, R., Bernatsky, S., Reyes, R., & de Jong, K. (2007). Mental health status of vulnerable tsunami-affected communities: a survey in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(3), 263-269.

Trappler, B., Braunstein, J. W., Moskowitz, G., & Friedman, S. (2002). Holocaust survivors in a primary care setting: Fifty years later. Psychological Reports, 91(2), 545-552.

Vignato, S. (2012). Devices of oblivion: How Islamic schools rescue orphaned children from traumatic experiences in Aceh (Indonesia). South East Asia Research, 20(2), 239-261.

Vogt, D. S., & Tanner, L. R. (2007). Risk and resilience factors for posttraumatic stress symptomatology in Gulf War I veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(1), 27-38.

Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2004). Invitation to psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.


Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 527 times
 PDF Downloaded : 3 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Nur Afni Safarina, Ella Suzanna

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.