Electricity Supply and Management Challenges in Nigeria: A Study of BEDC

Francis A. IKENGA, E. Allison OGIDIGBEN,


Electricity supply situation in Nigeria can be best described as a total failure. It is highly insufficient and unavailable in some places regardless of the huge demand for its service. Successive administrations have voted huge amount of money to the power sector; yet, power outage is a commonplace in the country. It is on this background that this study examined the leading cause of the challenges in the Nigerian power sector over the years. To achieve this specific objective, the study finds it necessary to adopt historical research design and relied extensively on secondary sources of data through the survey of textbooks, journal publications, dailies and internet sources to gather relevant materials for the study. The study finds out that in spite of the policy reforms and funds allocated to the power sector by successive administrations in Nigeria, the sector is yet to be applauded for increase in power supply. In the face of the unending challenge of power outage in Nigeria, this study suggests among others that: the government should allocate sufficient funds to the sector and ensure that funds are utilised for the purposes of which they are allocated, experts in the area should be allowed to manage the sector, technical equipments should be adequately managed and replaced when necessary.


Nigeria, Power Sector, Electricity Supply, Management, Challenges

Full Text:



Adedeji, A. A. (2016). Spatial exploration and analysis of electricity power poverty: a case study of Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria. March 11, 2016.Retrieved from: https://lra.le,ac.uk/handle/238461. Accessed 17/06/2022.

Adeleke, O., Nwosa, P. I., & Amassoma, D. (2018). Determinant of Household Accessibility to Alternative Sources of Electricity Supply in Nigeria: A Case Study of Ekiti State. Singaporean Journal of Business Economics, and Management Studies (SJBEM), 6(5), 22-39. DOI:10.12816/0046862.

Ademola, T., Adekunbi, I., & Eyitayo, A. (2019). Legal and Regulatory Mechanism of Electricity Generation and distribution in Nigeria: A Review of Ibadan Distribution Outlets. European Journal of Social Sciences, 58(4), 267-276.

Adenikinju, A. F. (2005).Analysis of the cost of infrastructure failure in a Developing Economy. African Economic Research Consortium Lecture Series, AERS Research Paper 148(2005), pp.1-44.

Aloke, A. (2017). Is the Power Sector Recovery Plan the Panacea for Resolving the Challenges of Power Sector? Privatization Digest Journal of the Bureau of Public Enterprise, December 2017.

Amadi, S. (2014).Successes and Challenges of the Power Sector Reform So Far: Next Step. Keynote Presentation at the Nigeria Bar Association 2nd Annual Energy and Environmental Law Roundtable, Yenagos, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, February 20th- 21st 2014.

Anumaka, M. C. (2012). Scenario of Electricity in Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Innovation Technology (IJEIT), 1(6), 2277-3754.

Aremu, , J. O. (2019). Epileptic Electric Power Generation and Supply in Nigeria: Causes, Impact and Solution. Journal of Contemporary Research in Social Sciences, 1(3), 73-81. DOI: 10.33094/26410249.2019.13.73.81.

Arowolo, W. & Yannick, P. (2017). Market Reform in Nigeria Power Sector: A Review of Issues and Potential Solutions. Work Paper, April 2017. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/31583865. Accessed 29/09/2022

Babalwa, B. (2021). Nigeria: How the electricity supply industry performed in Q2 2020. Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) Report, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.esi-africa.com/industry-sectors/finance-and-policy/nigeria. Accessed 30/06/2022.

Chanchangi, Y. N., Adu, F., Ghosh, A., Sundaram, S., & Mallick, T. K. (2022). Nigeria’s energy review: Focusing on solar energy potential and penetration. Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI), University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-022-02308-4. Accessed 30/06/2022.

Chinwuko, E. C., Mgbemena, C. O., Aguh, P., & Ebhota, W. (2014). Electricity Generation and Distribution in Nigeria: Technical Issues and Solutions. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), 3(11), 1934-7941.

Dahida, D. P. & Maidoki, B. P. (2013). Public Policy Making and Implementation in Nigeria: Connecting the Nexus. Public Policy and Administration Research, 3(6), 56-64.

Dahunsi, F. M. & Melodi, A. O. (2021). Evolution of Electricity Metering Technologies in Nigeria.Nigerian Journal of Technological Development, 18(2), 152-165.

Dipo, O. (2022 March, 2). Devolution of ‘power’: States get right to generate own power. BUSINESS DAY NEWS. Retrieved from: https://businessday.ng/news/article/devolution-of-power-state-to-benefit. Accessed 30/06/2022.

Edeh, S. C. (2021). Poor Electricity Supply in Nigeria: Causes, Effects and Solutions. Retrieved from: https://bscholarly.com/poor-electricity-power-supply-in-nigeria/. Accessed 16/03/2023.

Emodi, N. V. & Diemuodeke, O. E. (2022). Why Nigeria’s electricity grid collapses and how to shore it up. THE CONVERSATION. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/why-nigerias-electricity-grip-collapses-and-how-to-shore-it-up. 11/04/2023.

Emovon, K., Olusegun, D. S., Mgbemena, C. O., & Adeyeri, M. K. (2018). Electric Power Generation Crisis in Nigeria: A Review of Causes and Solutions. International Journal of integrated Engineering, 10(1), 47-56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30880/ijie.xx.xx.xxxx.xx.xxxx.

Ezeani, C. O. (2008). The state and crisis in the power sector in Nigeria. University of Nigeria Journal of Political Economy, 2(1&2), 1-21.

Ezirim, G., Eke, O. & Onuoha, F. (2016). The Political Economy of Nigeria’s Power Sector Reforms: Challenges and Prospects, 2005-2015. Mediterranean Journal of Social Science, 7(4), 443-453. Doi:10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n4p.

Ijewere, A. A. (2012). Management of Electricity Power Supply in Delta and Delta States of Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. International Journal of Research in Computer Application & Management, 2(40), 26-32.

InfoGuide Nigeria News. (2023 March, 16). 10 Ways to Improve Power Supply and Utilization in Nigeria. Retrieved from: https://infoguidenigeria.com/10-ways-improve-power-suuply-nigeria/. Accessed 16/03/2023.

Jeremiah, K. (2022). Why Nigeria’s power generation challenges may persist in 2022. The Guardian Business News. Retrieved from: https://guardian.ng/energy/why-nigerians-power-generation-challenges-may-persis-in-2022. Accessed 16/3/2023.

Jonathan, E. (2018 September, 5). How poor power supply is hindering growth of Nigerian SMEs. TheCable News, Nigeria. Retrieved from: https://www.thecable.ng/power-supply-hindering-growth-nigeria-smes. Accessed 16/03/2023.

Kumar, S. S. & Nagarajan, C. (2016). Performance-economic and energy loss analysis of 80KWp grid connected roof top transformer less photovoltaic power plant. Circuits and System, 2016 (17), 662-679. https://doi.org/10.4236/cs.2016.76056.

Latham & Watkins Africa Practice. (2016). Nigeria Power Sector: Opportunities and Challenges for Investment in 2016. White Paper Number 1930, USA. February 23, 2016.

Monyei, C. G., Adewumia, A. O., Obolo, M. O., & Sajou, B. (2017). Nigeria’s energy poverty: Insights and Implications for smart policies and framework towards a smart Nigeria electricity network. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81(2018), 1582-1601.

National Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) Quarterly Reports. (2021). Electricity Sector in Nigeria. Retrieved from: http:////www.nerc.gov.ng/index.php/library/documens/NERC -Reports/NERC-Quarterly-Reports/. Accessed 30/06/2022

Nwabisi, P. N. (2018). Energy Sector and Business Development in Nigeria: A Study of South Eastern Nigeria: 1990-2016. A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Nnamdi Azukiwe University, Awka, In Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Degree in Business Administration, August 2018.

Obadote, D. J. (2009). Energy Crisis in Nigeria: Technical Issues and Solutions. Abuja, Power Sector Prayer Conference, pp.1-9

Obuebite, A. A., Nwosi-Anele, A., & Okwonna, O. (2021). Public Private Partnership (Ppp) and the Provision of Infrastructure in Nigeria: A Case for Energy Mix Sector in the Niger-Delta. International Journal of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering (IJPPE), 7(1), 11-20.

Odion, O. (2021 October, 27). EPSRA Bill 2021: Amending an Act to make it worse (1). Premium Times. Retrieved from: https://www.premiumtimesng.com/opinion/492001-epsra-bill-2021-amending-an-act-to-make-worse-1-by-odion-omonfoman.html. Accessed 30/06/2022.

Odulani, G. O. & Okokwa, C. (2009). Does Energy Consumption Contribute to Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence from Nigeria. East-West Journal of Economics and Business, 12(2), 37-79.

Oduro, R. A. (2018). Theory, Application and Policy of Efficiency Regulation: The Case of the West African Electricity Distribution Sector. A PhD Thesis Submitted in Fulfilment of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Surrey, October 2018.

Ojukwu, E. (2022). Poor Electricity Supply in Nigeria: Impact on Businesses. Tekedia Institute, April 22. Retrieved from: https://www.tekedia.com/poor-electricity-supply-in-nigeria-impact-on-businesss. Accessed 16/03/2023.

Okedu, K. E., Kenu, S., Idowu, K., & Uhunmwangho, R. (2018). Impact of the Independent Power Producers and National Integrated Power Projects on the Deregulation of the Nigerian Electricity Sector. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 20(1), 147-170.

Okereka, O. P. (2015). Vital civic registration system as a tool for development planning in Nigeria: An examination of the major challenges. Journal of Culture, Society and Development, 11(6), 36 – 42.

Okolie, U. C., & Edo, Z. O. (2023). Issues and failure of infrastructure project implementation in Nigeria. Social Sciences, Humanities and Education Journal, 4(3), 580 – 596.

Oladipo, F. & Temitayo, O. (2014). The Nigerian Power System till Date: A Review, International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Science and Engineering, 1(5), 20-33.

Olaoye, T., Ajilore, T., Akinluwade, K., Omole, F., & Adetunji, A. (2016). Energy Crisis in Nigeria: Need for Renewable Energy Mix. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 4(1), 1-8.

Olowosejeje, S. A. (2020 September, 22). What Nigeria’s poor power supply really costs and how a hybrid system could work for business. THE CONVERSATION. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/what-nigerias-poor-power-supply-really-cost-and-how-a-hybrid-system-could-work-for-business. Accessed 16/04/2023.

Onagoruwa, B. (2011). Nigerian Power Sector Reforms and Privatisation. Abuja: Bureau of Public Enterprises.

Onyekwena, C., Ishaku, J., & Akanonu, P. C. (2017). Electricity in Nigeria: Challenges and Way Forward. Second Draft, Centre for the Study of the Economies of Africa (CSEA), Abuja, Nigeria.

Oseni, M. O. (2011). An Analysis of the Power Sector Performance in Nigeria. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (9), 4765-4774.

Oseni, M. O. (2012). Households’ access to electricity and energy consumption pattern in Nigeria. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16: 1990-1995.

Oshin, O. A., Adenikin, A., Fakorede, E., & Ojitu, J. (2019). Incessant Power Supply in Nigeria and the Need for the Design and Production of 100,00MW Power Plant. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research (IJSER), 10(2), 1554-1574.

Oyewo, A., Aghahosseini, A., Bogdanov, D., & Breyer, C. (2018). Pathways to a fully Sustainable Electricity Supply for Nigeria in the Mid-term Future. Energy Conversion and Management, 178: 44-64. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2018.10.036.

Sada, I. (2007). Analysis on Generation Transmission and Distribution of Nigeria Power for National Development. Proceedings of the 2nd National Conference of Colleges of Agriculture, Environmental, Engineering and Science and Technology, Hassan Usman Polytechnic, Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria.

Simpson, E. S. (1969).Electricity Production in Nigeria. Economic Geography, 45(3), 239-257. doi:10.2307/143093.

Sule, A. H. (2010). Major Factors Affecting Electricity Generation, Transmission and Distribution in Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Mathematics Intelligence, 1, 159-164.

Taiwo, A. (2021 March, 22). Analysis: Why Nigeria’s power sector suffers low gas supply despite having African largest reserve. The Premium Times Nigeria. Retrieved from: https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/450482-analysis-why-nigerias-power-sector-suffers-low-gas-supply-despite-having-africas-largest-reserve.html. Accessed 30/06/2022.

Udegbunam, O. (2022 June, 4). A gas plant fails at a time other power plants are undergoing planned maintenance and capacity testing. Premium Times Nigeria. Retrieved from: https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/534754-why-electric-supply-fails-at-a-time-other-power-plants-are-are-undergoing-planned-maintenance-and-capacity-testing. Accessed 16/3/2023.

United State of America (USA) Department of Commerce. (2021). Nigeria-Country Commercial Guide: Electricity and Power System. 2021-10-13 Publication. Retrieved from: https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/nigeria-electricity-and-power-system. Accessed 17/06/2018

Vincent, E. N. & Yusuf, S. D. (2014). Integrating renewable energy and smart grid technology into the Nigerian electricity grid system. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 5(2014), 220-238.

World Bank. (2019). Public-Private Partnership Units: Lessons for their Design and Use in Infrastructure. Work Bank/PPIAF, Washington, D. C.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29103/jtp.v3i2.13473

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 217 times
 PDF Downloaded : 18 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Transparansi Publik (JTP) EISSN: 2809-1310 Flag Counter