Factors Affecting Employability Skills of Beauty Students in Gerbang Kertosusila

Amina Ningsih, Eko Hariadi, Marniati Marniati, Tri Rijanto


There is currently an imbalance between the skills mastered by vocational high school graduates with the skills needed in the labor market, especially employability skills, to maintain a job in various conditions and job requirements. This study aimed to examine the factors that affecting the employability skills of Beauty students namely career guidance, fieldwork practices, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy. The respondents consisted of 254 students in Beauty Expertise Program at Gerbang Kertosusila. The instruments used in this study were questionnaire with a Likert scale and the statistical method using structural equation modeling (SEM). This study found no significant effect of career guidance, fieldwork practice, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy on employability skills among Beauty students. The study also showed that career guidance and emotional intelligence have no significant effect on self-efficacy. However, fieldwork practice has a significant effect on the self-efficacy of Beauty students.


employability skills; career guidance; fieldwork practice; emotional intelligence; self-efficacy

Full Text:



Afujo, B. I. (2013). Challenges of youth unemployment in Nigeria: Effective career guidance as a panacea. International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia, 7(28), 307–321. https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev. v7i1.21

Amiruddin, Sunardi, & Irmayanti. (2013). Mengembangkan employability skills siswa SMK melalui project based learning. In Seminar Nasional Fakultas Teknik Universitas Negeri Makassar (pp. 416– 423).

Anas, I., & Hamzah, S. R. (2017). Conceptual study on the enhancement of employability among undergraduates in work-based learning settings. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(Special), 65–79. https://doi.org/10.6007/ IJARBSS/v7-i14/3652

Bandura, A. (Ed.). (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1109/EVER.2017. 7935960

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy belief of adolescents (pp. 307–337). New York: Information Age Publishing.

Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9–44. https://doi.org/10. 1177/0149206311410606

Berntson, E., Naswall, K., & Sverke, M. (2008). Investigating the relationship between employability and self-efficacy: A cross-lagged analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(4), 413–425. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320 801969699

Beukes, C. J. (2010). Employability and emotional intelligence of the individual within the school-to-work transition phase. University of South Africa.

BNSP. (2017). Skema sertifikasi KKNI level II pada kompetensi keahlian kecantikan kulit dan rambut. Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi (BNSP).

BPS. (2020). Berita resmi statistik: Keadaan ketenagakerjaan Jawa Timur, Februari 2020.

Brewer, L. (2013). Enhancing youth employability: What? Why? and How? Guide to core work skills. Geneva: ILO.

Buraga, J. G., & Caballero, R. T. (2018). Effectiveness of the career guidance program and the employability of the graduates of Isabela State University during the school year 2010-2015. Researchers World:Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce, 9(1), 127. https://doi.org/10.18843/rwjasc/v9i1/16

Cahyono, S. D. (2014). Kontribusi minat kerja dan bimbingan karir terhadap kesiapan memasuki dunia kerja. E-Jurnal Pendidikan Teknik Mesin, 2(3), 193–200.

CBI. (2011). Working towards your future. London: CBI. Retrieved from https://www.nus.org.uk/Global/CBI_NUS_Employability report_May 2011.pdf

Chow, H. J., Wong, S. C., & Lim, C. S. (2019). Examining mediating role of self-efficacy on undergraduates’ perceived employability. International Journal of Academic Research Business and Social Sciences, 9(6), 14–38. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v9-i6/5929

Coetzee, M., & Beukes, C. J. (2010). Employability, emotional intelligence and career preparation support satisfaction among adolescents in the school-to-work transition phase. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 20(3), 439–446.

Dwesini, N. F. (2017). The role of work-Integrated learning (WIL) in enhancing employability skills: Graduate perspectives. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(2), 1–9. Retrieved from www.ajhtl.com

Eccles, S., & Renaud, V. (2018). Building students’ emotional resilience through placement coaching and mentoring. In D. Morley (Ed.), Enhancing Employability in Higher Education through Work Based Learning (pp. 153–172). Guildford: Palgrave Macmillan.

Eden, S. (2017). Out of the comfort zone: Enhancing work-based learning about employability through student reflection on work placements. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 38(2), 266–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2014.911826

Edwards, M. (2014). The impact of placements on students’ self-efficacy. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, 4(3), 228–241. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/HESWBL-5-2014-0015

Falco, L., & Summers, J. (2017). Improving career decision self- efficacy and STEM self-efficacy in high school girls: Evaluation of an intervention. Journal of Career Development, 20(10), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845317721651

Fitriyanto, M. N., & Pardjono, P. (2019). Factors affecting the employability skills of vocational students majoring mechanical engineering. Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, 9(2), 132–140. https://doi.org/10.21831/ jpv.v9i2.24420

Freudenberg, B., Brimble, M., & Cameron, C. (2010). Where there is a WIL there is a way. Higher Education Research & Development, 29(5), 575–588. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2010.502291

Freudenberg, B., Brimble, M., Cameron, C., MacDonald, K., & English, D. (2012). I am what I am, am I? The development of self-efficacy through work integrated learning. The International Journal of Pedagogy and Curriculum, 19(3), 89–136.

Freudenberg, B., Cameron, C., & Brimble, M. (2010). The importance of self: Developing students’ self efficacy through work integrated learning. The International Journal of Learning, 17(10), 479–496. Retrieved from http://ijl.cgpublisher.com/product/pub.30/prod.2980

Geiser, C. (2013). Data analysis with Mplus. Methodology in the social sciences. New York: The Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://uml.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1284064362?accountid=14569

Ghozali, I. (2017). Structural equation modeling konsep dan aplikasi dengan program AMOS 24. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.

Goleman, D. (2001). Emotional intelligence: Issues in paradigm

building. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (Eds.), The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace (pp. 1–13). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Goleman, D. (2009). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Guile, D., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Learning through work experience. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 113–131. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 13639080020028738

Hamalik, O. (2009). Pengembangan SDM pelatihan ketenagakerjaan pendidikan terpadu. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Hanafi, I. (2012). Re-orientasi keterampilan kerja lulusan pendidikan kejuruan. Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, 2(1), 107–116.

Harry, T., Chinyamurindi, W. T., & Mjoli, T. (2018). Perceptions of factors that affect employability amongst a sample of final-year students at a rural South African university. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 44(0), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v44i0.1510

Harvey, L. (2003). Transitions from higher education to work: a briefing paper prepared by Lee Harvey (Centre for Research and Evaluation, Sheffield Hallam University), with advice from ESECT and LTSN Generic Centre colleagues. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/oeCgqW

Helyer, R., & Lee, D. (2015). The role of work experience in the future employability of higher education graduates. Higher Education Quarterly, 68(3), 348–372. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12055

Herwina, W., Madjid, H. A., & Daniel, H. (2018). Pengembangan model pembelajaran terintegrasi soft skill dan hard skill pada lembaga kursus kecantikan. Jurnal Ilmiah VISI PGTK PAUD Dan DIKMAS, 13(1), 37–47.

Hodges, C. B. (Ed.). (2018). Self-Efficacy in instructional technology contexts. Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319- 99858-9

Husain, M. Y., Mokhtar, S. B., Ahmad, A. A., & Mustapha, R. (2010). Importance of employability skills from employers’ perspective. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(2), 430–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.10.059

Jameson, A., Carthy, A., Mcguinness, C., & Mcsweeney, F. (2016). Emotional intelligence and graduates – employers ’ perspective s. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 515–522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.079

Jayawardena, L. N. A. C., & Gregar, A. (2013). Enhancing the employability of high school graduates: Impact of emotional intelligence. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, 10(2), 89–96.

Juhdi, N., Wan, F. P., Othman, N. A., & Moksin, H. (2010). Factors influencing internal and external employability of employees. business and economics Journal, BEJ-11, 1–10.

Kannaiah, D., & Shanthi, R. (2015). A study on emotional intelligence at work place. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(24), 147–155. Retrieved from www.iiste.org

Kunnen, E. S. (2014). The effect of a career choice guidance on self-reported psychological problems. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00547

Kurniawati, A., & Arief, S. (2016). Pengaruh efikasi diri, minat kerja, dan bimbingan karir terhadap kesiapan kerja siswa program keahlian akutansi. Economic Education Analysis Journal, 5(1), 363–376.

Loan, D. T. B., & Van, N. T. (2015). Career guidance in secondary schools - A literature review and strategic solutions for Vietnamese rural areas. American International Journal of Social Science, 4(5), 135–143.

Maddux, J. E. (1995). Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: theory, research, and application. (J. E. Maddux, Ed.), The Plenum series in Social/Clinical psychology. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6868-5

Martínez-roca, C., Martínez, M., & Pineda, P. (2014). The role of career guidance in the development of competences for socially fair employability. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 139(0), 343–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.009

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2016). The ability model of emotional intelligence: Principles and updates. Emotion Review, 8(4), 290–300. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073916639667

Munadi, S., Widarto, Yuniarti, N., Jerusalem, M. A., Hermansyah, & Rahmawati, F. (2018). Employability skills lulusan SMK dan relevansinya terhadap kebutuhan dunia kerja. (M. Herdyka, M. A. Majid, & Ari, Eds.) (1st ed.). Yogyakarta: Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan.

Mutoharoh, A. K., & Rahmaningtyas, W. (2019). Pengaruh praktik kerja industri, lingkungan keluarga, bimbingan karier dan motivasi kerja terhadap kesiapan kerja. Sains: Jurnal Manajemen Dan Bisnis, 12(1), 38–59.

Navas, M. del C. O. (2014). The improvement of employability among Higher Education students: the use of emotional intelligence as an educational strategy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 139, 380–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.021

Ojonugwa, O. I., Hamzah, R., Bakar, A. R., & Rashid, A. M. (2015). Evaluating self-efficacy expected of polytechnic engineering students as a measure of employability. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 3(3), 24–30. https://doi.org/10.7575/ aiac.ijels.v.3n.3p.24

Oliver, B. (2015). Redefining graduate employability and work-integrated learning: Proposals for effective higher education in disrupted economies. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Employability, 6(1), 56–65.

Pathak, A., Shankar, S., & Tewari, V. (2018). Impact of emotional intelligence on employability of IT professionals. Management Insight, 14(1), 14–21. https://doi.org/10.21844/mijia.14.01.4

Pegg, A. A., Waldock, J., Hendy-isaac, S., & Lawton, R. (2012). Pedagogy for employability. 1-904190-80-4: The Higher Education Academy.

Pitan, O. S., & Atiku, S. O. (2017). Structural determinants of students’ employability: Influence of career guidance activities. South African Journal of Education, 37(4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.15700/ saje.v37n4a1424

Pool, L. D., & Sewell, P. (2007). The key to employability : developing a practical model of graduate employability. Education + Training, 49(4), 277–289. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910710754435

Potgieter, I., & Coetzee, M. (2013). Emotional intelligence as a predictor of postgraduate students’ psychosocial employability attributes. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(2), 187–194.

Quiring, S. Q., Boys, S. K., & Harris, E. M. (2017). The role of self-efficacy in employability: implications for pedagogical change. Thurgood Marshall Law Review, 43(1), 533–550.

Raelin, J., Bailey, M., Hamann, J., Pendleton, L., Reisberg, R., & Whitman, D. (2015). The role of work experience and self-efficacy in STEM student retention. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 26(4), 29–50.

Rasul, M. S., Rauf, R. A. A., Mansor, A. N., Yasin, R. M., & Mahamod, Z. (2013). Graduate employability for manufacturing industry. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 102, 242–250. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.739

Rawat, R., & Sharma, R. (2018). Is psychological capital related to employability skills of graduate students? Journal of General Management Research, 5(2), 39–54. Retrieved from https://pdfs. semanticscholar.org/a6bb72fa204f58050942f7b83b818e5655db3173.pdf

Reisberg, R., Raelin, J. A., Bailey, M. B., Whitman, D. L., Hamann, J. C., & Pendleton, L. K. (2012). The effect of cooperative education on the self-efficacy of students in undergraduate engineering. In ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings. American Society for Engineering Education.

Restubog, S. L. D., Florentino, A. R., & Garcia, P. R. J. M. (2016). The mediating roles of career self-efficacy and career decidedness in the relationship between contextual support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(2), 186–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.06.005

Rhode, K. M. (2010). The effect of career counseling on the self-efficacy and career maturity of residential juvenile offenders. Texas Tech University.

Robertson, P. J. (2013). The well-being outcomes of career guidance. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 41(3), 254–266.

Rosmawati, P., & Usman, O. (2019). Effect of self-efficacy, working interest and career guidance to working readiness on vocational high school student majoring in office administrative in the South Jakarta. SSRN eJournals, (1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3415368

Rufai, A. U., Bakar, A. R. Bin, & Rashid, A. B. M. (2015). Developing a sustainable practical model of graduate employability for Higher Education. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 3(1), 42–51. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.3n.1p.42

Serrat, O. (2009). Understanding and developing emotional intelligence. Knowledge Solutions, (49), 1–9.

Singh, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence at work: A professional guide (Third). New Delhi: Response Book.

Subekti, S., & Ana. (2018). Developing employability skills of vocational high school students in implementing work based learning (WBL). In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Culinary, Fashion, Beauty, and Tourism (pp. 11–12). Padang.

Sunardi, Purnomo, & Sutadji, E. (2016). Pengembangan employability skills siswa SMK ditinjau dari implementasi pendekatan saintifik. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, Dan Pengembangan, 1(7), 1391–1398.

Supriatna, M., & Budiman, N. (2010). Bimbingan karier di SMK. Bandung: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Universitas Pendiikan Indonesia. Retrieved from http://file.upi.edu/Direktori/FIP/JUR._PSIKOLOGI_ PEND_DAN_BIMBINGAN/197102191998021-NANDANG_BUDIMAN/BIMBINGAN_KARIER_DI_SMK.pdf

Tabatabaei, S., Jashani, N., Mataji, M., & Amir, N. (2013). Enhancing staff health and job performance through emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 1666–1672. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.011

Tentama, F., & Merdiaty, N. (2020). Analysis of factors that affect employability and its implications. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 8(3), 238–254. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2020.8325

Terzaroli, C., & Oyekunle, Y. (2019). Career service as a measute to support employability: A comparison between University of Florence and The University of Lagos. Studies in Adult Education and Learning, 25(1), 89–110. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.4312/ as.25.1.89-110

Van de Hof, R. (2015). Self-esteem, self-efficacy and employability among disadvantaged youth in Orange Farm, Johannesburg. Utrecht University.

Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2012). Structural equation modeling: Applications using Mplus. United Kingdom: JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.

Wang, Y. (2012). Education in a changing world: Flexibility, skills, and employablity (Vol. 69104). Washington: The World Bank. Retrieved from www.worldbank.org

Weldon, A., & Ngo, J. K. (2019). The effects of work-integrated learning on undergraduate sports coaching s tudents ’ perceived self-efficacy. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 20(3), 309–319.

Winkel, W. S., & Hastuti, M. M. S. (2015). Bimbingan dan konseling di institusi pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Media Abadi.

Xu, Y. (2013). The characteristic of college students’ employability and its relationship with emotional intelligence. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 5(12), 70–76. Retrieved from www. jocpr.com

Yahya, M., Iskandar, S., & Sunardi. (2017). Technical skills and employability skills of vocational high school students in Indonesia. Journal of Scientific Research and Studies, 4(6), 148–155.

Yorke, M. (2010). Employability: aligning the message, the medium and academic values. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Employability, 1(1), 2–12.

Yorke, M., & Knight, P. (2003). The undergraduate curriculum and employability.

Yulia, S., & Yuzhuo, C. A. I. (2015). Factors affecting the employability of international graduates. International Scientific Journal of Universities and Leadership, (1), 24–30.

Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2009). What we know about emotional intelligence: How it affects learning, work, relationship, and our mental health. London: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29103/ijevs.v3i2.3620

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 68 times
 PDF Downloaded : 10 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Amina Ningsih, Eko Hariadi, Marniati, & Tri Rijanto

International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies (IJEVS)

E-ISSN : 2684-6950