Komunitas fauna makrozoobentos di kawasan reboisasi mangrove Kepulauan Seribu: faktor lingkungan, distribusi, ekologi komunitas, pola sebaran dan hubungannya

Syahrial Syahrial, Chandrika Eka Larasati, Dandi Saleky, Muhammad Fauzan Isma

Abstract


Abstrak

Mangrove sangat penting bagi kehidupan biota pesisir dan laut, dimana telah mengalami kerusakan dan juga telah dilakukan rehabilitasi. Kajian komunitas fauna makrozoobentos di kawasan reboisasi mangrove Kepulauan Seribu berdasarkan faktor lingkungan, distribusi, ekologi komunitas, pola sebaran dan hubungannya telah dilakukan pada bulan Maret 2014. Hal ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor lingkungan, distribusi, ekologi komunitas, pola sebaran serta hubungannya. Faktor lingkungan diukur secara in situ, sedangkan fauna makrozoobentosnya dikumpulkan dengan transek garis dan plot. Kemudian ekologi komunitas fauna makrozoobentosnya dilihat berdasarkan indeks keanekaragaman, dominansi maupun keseragaman, sedangkan pola penyebarannya dianalisis dengan indeks morisita serta hubungan antara faktor lingkungan, ekologi komunitas dan pola penyebarannya dianalisis menggunakan regresi linier sederhana. Faktor lingkungan yang diukur tidak begitu berbeda dan juga tidak melebihi baku mutu. Sebanyak 6 spesies dengan 3 kelompok fauna makrozoobentos telah ditemukan di kawasan reboisasi mangrove Kepulauan Seribu. Kemudian indeks keanekaragaman maupun keseragamannya tergolong rendah, dominansinya tergolong tinggi dan pola penyebarannya tergolong seragam (uniform). Selain itu, hubungan antara faktor lingkungan (suhu, salinitas dan DO perairan) dengan indeks keanekaragaman maupun keseragaman berkorelasi positif, sedangkan hubungan antara faktor lingkungan dengan indeks dominansinya berkorelasi negatif. Kemudian korelasi antara faktor lingkungan dengan pola penyebaran berkorelasi positif (membentuk kelompok) dan korelasi antara ekologi komunitas (keanekaragaman dan keseragaman) dengan pola penyebarannya juga berkorelasi positif serta membentuk kelompok.

Kata kunci: fauna makrozoobentos; reboisasi mangrove; faktor lingkungan; distribusi; ekologi komunitas; pola sebaran; Kepulauan Seribu

Abstract

Mangrove ecosystems are essential for the life of coastal and marine biota, which have been damaged and have been reforested. Study macrozoobenthos fauna community in mangrove reforestation area of Kepulauan Seribu was conducted in March 2014. This aimed to assess the relationship between environmental factors, distribution, ecology, and distribution patterns of the macrozoobenthos fauna community. The environmental factors were measured in situ, and macrozoobenthos was collected using line and plot transect. The ecology of macrozoobenthos fauna was analyzed based on diversity, uniformity, and dominance index. Distribution patterns were analyzed using Morisita index, and their relationships were analyzed using linear regression. Six species from 3 groups were found in this area. Diversity and uniformity index was classified low, dominance index was high, and the distribution patterns were relatively uniform. In addition, the relationship between the environmental factors (temperature, salinity, and DO) with diversity and uniformity index were positively correlated, and relationship between the environmental factors with dominance index were negatively correlated. The correlation between environmental factors with distribution patterns were positive (form groups), and the correlation between community ecology with distribution patterns were positive.

Keywords: community ecology; distribution; Kepulauan Seribu; mangrove reforestation; macrozoobenthos fauna


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29103/aa.v7i2.2456

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